Iran is a country that has gone through massive evolution in its entirety. In essence, the country has been through changes that characterizes its present day position. They include political, social and economic dimensions. However, the subject of politics is a reality that distinguishes the country. It dates back to before revolution. There are different political system, regimes and people that did lead the state at different times. For instance, the Shar and Ayatollah were critical in the process of revolution. The Islamic community also did play a major role in defining the political state of the country. There are other groups such as Shiite and Sunni that defined the state climate in Iran. The following paper explores the politics of Iran from before revolution until now.
Prior to the revolution, Iran was theocratic state. It was bicameral in nature. In essence, the government had the senate house and the legislative segment that did define the running of the government. They members were elected by the Shah. They also had a constitution that would run the country. In essence, the Shas regime did over see many occurrences in the state. The people were not comfortable with leadership. In fact, they opposed a number of issues that led to the revolution. For instance, the Shas regime becomes increasing oppressive to the citizens. The forces did exercise brutal acts against the citizens. They were also corrupt and did waste a lot of resources that were critical in prospering the nation. It is also vital to note that the western Communities did back the Shahs regime. It is because Shas regime did push its citizen to adopt the secular modernization that was present among the west. For instance, it was under their Shas dictatorial leadership that educational opportunities expanded. He also sought to replace some of cultural Islamic values with those of the western people. He chose to prohibit the ever-present Muslim clothing. The women would be allowed to avoid the usage of Nijab. The police would exercise force to punish women who still used the public hijab. Moreover, Britain and U.S did consider Iran as a critical ally. Consequently, the Sha did choose to involuntarily industrialize massive segments of the nation. The society did consider it as a form of social injustice. They felt enslaved in their own country. Bruno indicates that the period was marked by decline in the economy. It did not rise owing to the deterioration in revenue that resulted from the oil. It is vital to note that oil was a major export in the Iran. However, the Sha regime did support an increase price of oil. It was detrimental to the nation. The citizens had hoped that the Shah regime would be a source of economic and political stability. In essence, Sha did establish a constitutional monarchy.
The White Revolution
The white revolution was a critical reform period in the history of Iran. In essence, it did commence in 1963 upon induction by Shah Reza. It was fundamental step towards the process of westernization. He has distinct motives. He did hope to influence the landlords in their allocations. Consequently, he would obtain great support from the peasant workers and formal employees as well. He did utilize a referendum for its implementation. The revolution was defined by 19 elements. First, he sought to introduce land programs that would eradicate Feudalism. Secondly, he had his focus on the countys forests and pasturelands. There were laws that would ensure that these public resources were protected and devoid of any form of destruction. The revolution also sought privatizes most of the public enterprises. Unlike in the past tradition, these changes did consider women. They would be given the right to vote that is similar to their male counterparts. Education was also a critical part of the process. He sought to ensure that every one attained the Iranian public schools. However, the elements did lead to social tension in the society. Moreover, most of these reforms did not pick up hence creating anger among the citizens. It is fundamental to note that the white revolution did encounter criticism from the clergy and landlords. The clergy felt the deviation of power. The landlord was also not happy with the government for buying most of the land.
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The role of Ayatollah Komeni
It is fundamental to note that it is the white revolution that did lead to the rise and popularity of Ayatollah Khomeini his initial days, he did serve as member of the clergy. In fact, he led a reserved life and did not engage himself in the active politics of the country. However, the brutality and oppression of the Sha regime did spur his public participation. In essence, he was responsible for leading the opposition against Sha and his reforms. In fact, he made public declaration regarding the failure of the Sha regime. He felt, the regime was responsible for the economic and cultural decline of the Iranian people. He did call press conference to outline the destructive impact of the reforms. Bruno highlights that these activities were an incitement that led to his ultimate detention. The issue led to an uproar among hi followers. They did stage a rebellion to refute his arrest. The police and the Ayatollah supported did exchange fiercely. Many citizens died together with the police force. However, upon his release eight months later, he did continue inciting the public. In fact, he out rightly condemned the association of Iran and countries such as Israel and US. The fight led to an interim period where most citizens continued to undermine westernization. The country embraced the revolution message of Khomeini. He believed martyrdom was justified in the face social injustices such as those that Sha propagated. It is also vital to note that Ayatollah was critical in advancing the Muslim jurist. He did advocate for guardianship as a enter element of growth for the Muslims.
Islam and its involvement
Islamic insolvent in Iran politics came after they concurred Persia at around 637-651. The Islamic conquest led to the termination of the Sassanid Empire and the termination of Zoroastrian religion in Persia. Since the time of conquest Islamic has remained the official religion in Iran. An attempt to concur Iran by Muslim communities occurred in 1925 under the military leadership of Reza Khan. Reza was a young military officer who attempted the attack but it never materialized. The combined forces which led to cold war made it hard for the attackers to succeed in their mission. Needless to say, Ayatolla was critical for the entire process. His presence was fundamental in empowering the patriots of the region Upon his arrival, he compressed the communists and the secular parties who had served with Islamists to overthrow shah. The deal materials and this led to the cessation of the Iran monarchy giving Muslims another opportunity of ruling over Iran. Musavi rule led to the transformation of the Iranian religion and political landscape. Shia Islam became an undistinguished part of Irans political setup. During his tenure, Musavi came up with a new form of government that was based on the rule of the Islamic jurist. As part of his leadership Khomeini insisted on running the government by applying the Islamic Sharia. According to his view, implementation of the Sharia law remained the only way to control the operations dominant under the leadership. From the time when Musavi succeeded in conquering Iran and gaining back the throne, Islamic sharia has remained under application. The attempt to overthrow Iranian Monarch by Reza which finally materialized in 1979 under Musavi explains how Muslims found themselves in Iran.
Shit and Sunni Groups
Shit and Sunni both denote Muslim communities. Their great differences began after the death of Mohammed. The two parties fail to concur at particular point concerning their religious believes. The religious problem that brings difference relied on who was the actual successor of Mohammad. According Sunnis, Ali remained the last caliphs of Mohammad a point that received strong contradiction from their counterparts. Shiites in their conscience believe that Ali was the only successor and all the remaining ones should come through him. It is from this view that a number the two parties find no common ground for acceptance. Each party views itself as the one presenting the right version of succession. Sunnis ultimately do not believe in the possibility of any successors after Mohammed. Currently the Shiites have supreme religious leaders defining their own structure of governance. Sunnis however, do not believe in such leadership structures since they do not recognize any successor of Mohammad. Shiites have strong attachment to Ali as Mohammads successor. They glorify his presence and believes in his martyrdom. On the contrary, Sunnis strongly oppose the act and has a result fails to share any common ground with Shiites on the matter. Other aspects of principles that differentiate the two parties are their prayer styles. They differ in the way in which they pray and also different customs. However, the two parties share a number of factors in common including Quran and the five pillars of Islam. More so, both the parties believe in Prophet Mohammad as the last passenger of God. Their major difference is traced on hadiths and sharia law expressing how the Muslims should govern themselves.
In the present day Iran is seen as theocracy that mixes religion as compared to other parts of the world. Shiite Muslims forms one part of the Muslim rule that demands special place to its clerics. They one people to succumb to their rulings and religious law. Shiite religious sensibilities command a major political group in Iran. Comparing current status with Past ones, the leadership structure of Iran has undergone some transition. However, the main religious group in Iran is still the Muslim community. They command the major population and as a result determine most of the political activities in Iran. From the recent past, Iran has enjoyed the leadership of presidency. For instance, in 1989, Ali Akbar Hashem-Rafsanjani who was the speaker of the national assembly became the president of Iran. Since then and in the past, Iran has engaged in various talks with different nations including United States. Presence of presidency in the leadership of Iran has made the country to make some steps ahead. The story must however remain apparent that Muslim community forms the major group of the Iranian leadership. The country has, therefore, experience much influence from the Islamic community since 1979.
Finally, it comes clear from history that Iran lost its leadership to the Muslim community particularly in 1979. This is the time when Khomeini came back and initiated the overthrow of the then Iran leader. Khomeini served in exile for a period of fourteen years while in France. After his release from exile, he fulfilled the urge for the Muslim to turn over Iran which first happened in 1925. As a result of his success, Muslims rose to power and took the leadership of Iran. Apparently, it remain that Iran has faced struggle in terms of leadership that is based on religious background.