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Organizations and Behavior

The Relationship Between Organizational Structure and Culture

The diversity of the organizational structures and cultures varies. The main idea of the company choosing its organizational structure lies in its level of the development and overall requirements of business, in which it is involved. Among the diversity of organizational structures, it is possible to outline two leading types, which offer their conditions to the companies. These types include hierarchical and flat structures. However, many scientists outline a matrix type, which also finds itself in the contemporary business. Hierarchical structures are the most common ones. They have head of the company and its subordinates, which make regular reports on the department’s performance. Each department also has its subordinates. Such structure helps to make a complex system of employees working in the specific areas. It helps to create a complex system of regulation related to the decentralization of responsibilities. According to Tran and Tian, “Organizations that operate with a high degree of environmental uncertainty may decentralize decision-making.” It means that uncertainty is a factor influencing the company’s choice of hierarchical structure. In contrast, flat structures do not have multiple levels. In a flat structure, there is a single head of the company and several subordinates working to report on their activity. Such structures are common for small businesses.

Among the diversity of cultures, it is possible to outline four basic types: clan, market, adhocracy, and hierarchy. Clan characterizes family relations among employees. Market culture has a focus on rivalry, success achievement, and plans implementation. Adhocracy involves a culture, which has an orientation on taking risky decisions. Hierarchies, in its turn, have a peculiarity of the culture with control and order. However, the contemporary list of cultures includes far more cultures, which represent specific characteristics of each company.

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There is a direct connection between cultures and structures. First, there is a direct effect on the communication principles within the company. For example, hierarchy of positions in the company according to the hierarchical structure leads to the official communication within the company. However, clan culture means that employees perform as a single family. In general, it is possible to create any atmosphere within the company with the help of the organizational structure and culture. This mixture allows creating a specific set of characteristics, which will fit the company’s staff according to its age and generation’s development. In this aspect, it is possible to claim that there is a significant influence on the company’s performance. In addition, there is much influence on business development and the company’s evolution. The company follows the main aspects of its internal environment creating comfort zone, which leads to the stability of the performance principles. It is possible to say that business obtains a framework of its activity, which helps to follow a set of rules, responsibilities, and performance standards.

Employees fall under the influence of the diversity of aspects, which rise from both external and internal environments. Leadership, work culture, personal relations, job responsibilities, communication, and relations at work represent the most common elements influencing employee’s performance. Leadership can motivate or demotivate employees to perform with extra efficiency. Work culture may not meet employee’s interests and preferences. Job responsibilities may satisfy employee’s needs or may give a birth to the feeling of unfairness. All these aspects refer to a single term, which finds itself in every employee – personality. Personalities of every employee formulate the basis of further collaboration in the company. It leads to the formulation of various cultural peculiarities and provides a company with its own characteristics. In general, it is possible to support the idea that the company needs to adhere to the preferences of each employee willing to work for the company’s success. It creates an atmosphere of meeting needs and listening to the opinion of every employee. Values should start from the employee’s interests.

Approaches to Management and Leadership

There are different leadership styles belonging to the thousands of entrepreneurs around the world penetrating their activity with the same peculiarities. The majority of styles presented in the leading managerial theoretical brochures, it is possible to outline the following the most popular ones. One of the most popular leadership styles is a charismatic style. A famous representative of this style is Oprah Winfrey. By means of her personality’s power, this woman manages to influence everyone keeping in touch with her. This style is an effective weapon to motivate others and encourage them to achieve goals. Such style is perfect for the source of inspiration and raise of spirit. Another popular style belongs to the founder of Virgin Group – Richard Branson. He successfully applied innovative leadership style, which encourages employees to apply innovative thinking to the decision making process. The aspects of this style helped the owner of the company look at any problem from the innovative side. As a result, any problem turned in benefits. The leader of this company accepted every problem as a challenge and motivated each employee to find an effective solution. Jeff Bezos, a head of Amazon, uses another approach to manage his subordinates and motivate them to perform with extra efficiency. He is a pace setter using various techniques to set high performance standards for employees working for his company. Optimization is also another characteristic of the company’s performance, in which a leader uses this leadership style. This style is also necessary when the company focuses on results.

The implementation of any organizational theory involves changes in the company’s performance. It influences the environment, in which the company operates. Management is a science, which includes the diversity of concepts and theoretical approaches describing changes of the company in terms of applying new organizational techniques. As a result, it is possible to outline a tendency in the influence of the diversity of organizational concepts on the company’s productivity and management principles. In addition, there is a need to mention that companies formulate their specific managerial principles and standards based on the organizational aspects. Under the influence of time and external environment, these aspects may change and transform formulating a new theoretical core of the performance. In general, it is undeniable that companies need to adhere to the changeable environment and follow the tendencies of the organizational aspects in order to save its competitiveness.

Among the diversity of approaches to management, it is possible to outline the following ones. First, empirical approach is one of the most popular approaches. It uses a specific set of techniques and approaches used in the particular case. It is similar to the case studies, which have a long-term effect of prescribing the success recipe for each company according to its requirements. Cases also help to learn about experiences of other companies in the same field. Probably, empirical approach is similar to benchmarking, which teaches to apply the same techniques to the diversity of situations faced by the company. Another approach is a human behavior approach. It helps the company to adjust to the personalities the company meets on its way to success. The main concept of this approach is that managerial decisions and all actions within the company belong to people. It means that there is a need to learn everything about human behavior and its impact on the overall success of the company. Motivation and support of trusting human relations formulate the core of such companies. In particular, behavioral approach prevents thousands of companies from mistakes as long as they act from learning the behavioral point of human nature. Social system approach is another element of approaches to management. It considers organization as a single social system, which build culture within the company. Cooperation between team members formulates the essence of this approach. In general, the majority of approaches motivates managers to choose the most suitable one aimed to satisfy interests of each company.

Ways of Using Motivation Theories in Organization

Depending on the leadership styles, it is possible to outline an autocratic leader, a democratic leader, a quiet leader, and a transformational leader. Each of the named above has its influence on the company’s performance and motivation of personnel in particular. Autocratic leaders have an effective motivation influencing managers starting to believe that they are capable of making productive, accurate, and effective decisions. Such leaders motivate employees by involving them in the discussion of information regarding the company’s performance based on industrial tendencies. It is necessary to pay a special attention to these leaders as long as they create the most effective working environment practically at any company. It leads to the balanced performance along with understanding and comforting working conditions. Democratic employees involve employees in the decision-making process and let them participate in the creation of both long-term and short-term plans for the company. It helps employees to feel that the company values them. Employees become emotionally interested in the development of the company. Quiet leaders tend to permit employees to make decisions regarding routine operations. This approach works with outstanding efficiency among experienced employees willing to work in teams. Transformational leaders tend to associate their leadership style with charisma, which also becomes a powerful weapon in motivating employees. Enthusiasm and continuous support become the major motivational tools encouraging employees to contribute to the company’s success.

In order to apply one of the diversity of motivational theories in the workplace, it is necessary to follow one of the following recommendations. First, it is important to remember that the expectancy theory requires using a traditional compensation theory, which will satisfy needs of every employee. Employees should receive a fair payment for everything they do for the sake of the company. Otherwise, there will be a conflict between the head of the company and his subordinates. In addition, there is a need to create extra bonuses and promotions for the employees working hard to achieve success. Appropriate compensation ensures employees that the company values them. It leads to the improvement of employee retention and motivates employees to improve their skills in order to get more promotions. Companies should reflect their gratitude and pride by means of benefits for each employee. It will help to build a strong team of employees supporting each other and helping in each problematic situation. In addition, it will be effective to encourage employees to continue their contributions and develop their experience. Secondly, in order to meet needs of the acquired needs theory, it is important to motivate employees by providing them with regular trainings. The company may participate in the design of the training and include elements, which employees need the most. Paid training programs will become the best solution to the problem of employees striving to develop and work not only for the personal success, but also for the company’s evolution. These programs will also become a recognition element of each employee, which will reflect the company’s gratitude. In order to meet needs of employees by motivating them through theory X and theory Y. If the company finds it appropriate to apply this theory, it is important to motivate employees by external sources. In addition, it means that the company should create interesting projects for employees in order to keep their interest in participating in the company’s development and evolution. Everyday routine should also have a support of successful employees proving to the ordinary employees that it is possible to move up the career ladder by following the company’s directions. In addition, it proves that the company values its employees and praises them with appropriate compensation.

Motivation is one of the most important tools in the manager’s performance. It is necessary to admit that without effective motivational approaches and tools, employees will have no intention to work for the company’s success and growth at all. Managers need to consider each employee as a personality and strive to meet his needs. It may be a difficult task; however, it is possible to create a specific motivational system based on the core of one of the motivational theories. The main use of such motivational systems is that it allows creating a comfort zone for both managers and their subordinates. Motivation leads to job satisfaction, which, in its turn, reduces conflicts and enhances communication of employees. It means that there is a need to pay enough attention to motivation and analyze its influence in terms of the performance of each specific company with its peculiarities.

Mechanisms for Developing Effective Teamwork in Organizations

First, it is necessary to define group as a term used in management. A group is a collection of people (from two and more) interacting with each other according to the set of norms and principles created in the process of communication. It is possible to outline formal and informal groups. Formal groups tend to formulate the core of the official communication. Formal communication does not allow using colloquial speech or wearing casual style in clothes. Informal communication has peculiarities of non-official style. The nature of groups fully depends on leadership and overall organizational culture within the company. It establishes teamwork performance, opens the boundaries of the interpersonal communication, and builds the core of professionals willing to work with each other. Each manager should look after the performance and behavior of each team in order to control the process of a plan implementation. Differentiation of roles between group members leads to the understanding of each other’s roles and responsibility in the daily routine. If employees experience conflicts, it is a manger’s responsibility to solve the problem and prevent from facing it again in the future.

Among the factors, which may inhibit or promote group performance and its overall activity, it is possible to outline the following ones. First, the corporate spirit has a significant influence on teamwork. Employees may feel a lack of the company’s support while working on one of the projects. Another factor is leadership. If leader does not take care of promoting team’s success, employees will feel no desire to continue cooperating with each other. Another factor is motivation, which becomes an engine of the team’s activity. Managers should work on the continuous improvement of the working conditions and should choose appropriate motivational approaches aimed to encourage employees to achieve team’s goals. Interpersonal conflicts and lack of support can also destroy team’s performance, which should become one of the primary objectives in the monitoring function of a manager. Finally, it is necessary to pay attention to the team’s health, which lies in its productivity and efficiency of the decision-making process. All these aspects will help to build a team producing high quality goods and services depending on the company’s direction of the performance.

Today, technologies represent an innovational side of the contemporary life. Technologies have a vast effect on every part of management including teamwork and communication between team members. Social networking options and various software of project management can help to regulate the performance of each team and track the progress of success achievement. Today, it is much easier for companies to grow and develop as long as they have an access to the base of technological resources. All these aspects help to improve meetings, brainstorming, and the decision making process with the help of innovations offered by the technological sphere of life. In general, it will have a significant effect on the company’s performance and future expansion. In addition, it becomes easier to control all stages of the project’s lifecycle with the help of technologies. It means that there is no need to make graphs or endless calculations. Computers and tablets can provide managers with results of these manipulations in a blink of an eye. It leads to the boost of teamwork and collaboration between team members. In general, it is important to remember that companies will continue to develop and grow as long as the innovational side will let the open the boundaries of the familiar business world.

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