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International Ethics

Chapter 3


Nowadays, psychologists face more ethical dilemmas as the level of globalization increases with each year. Harmony, in turn, can only be achieved through enlightened globalization, as opposed to unilateral globalization dominated by particular cultures.

According to the chapter, psychologists face difficult culture-based ethical dilemmas emanating from different matters such as respect, professional boundaries, the position of women in society, competency, law, and social justice. However, the contemporary world offers psychologists from various cultures training in different countries and dealing with diverse clients. A clash between cultural beliefs and ethical standards should be addressed by focusing on the well-being of clients in the society.

Psychologists must learn to respect and care for their clients as this is more important than the Western emphasis on the rule-compliance. The range of ethical dilemmas presented in this chapter exemplifies the challenges of working in diverse cultures facing psychologists today. Therefore, every psychologist must come out and support the enlightened globalization.

Keywords: ethical dilemma, globalization, ethical standards


This chapter focuses on ethical dilemmas, cultural differences, and the need to globalize psychology. In line with the ethical dilemmas, the chapter highlights the idea that psychologists in the modern world are faced with dilemmas as they work in different cultures in the global world rather than their local communities. Vignettes of ethical dilemmas bring out a clear picture of such cross-cultural dilemmas faced by psychologists; hence, they are helping in the identification of culturally sensitive matters that cannot be solved by the application of codified rules easily. There needs to be an effective framework for the negotiation and understanding of diverse cultural views among psychologists to boost their activities. They need to develop an open approach that will see them respect and appreciate clients from different cultural backgrounds. The increasing rate of globalization comes with both positive and negative issues that may affect ethical standards among psychologists. Leach, Stevens, and Lindsay (2012) classified globalization into enlightened globalization and unilateral globalization. Enlightened globalization aims at uniting the entire world while unilateral globalization is dominated by particular communities.

Both psychological and sociopolitical forces may resist globalization in cases where they sense a looming threat to the maintenance of different cultural identities and worldviews. Professionals in different fields including psychology are working hard to ensure they meet global standards, mobility, and high level of accountability in psychological research. Common ethical guidelines and standards lead to the universality in line with the ethical practice in psychology. The patterns of living in the contemporary world have changed as explained by the level of mobility of individuals. Today, people are able to move from one place to another and work there following the globalization effect. The key challenge facing psychology organizations attempting to develop international standards is the difficulty of establishing universally accepted values. Enlightened globalization plays an instrumental role in ensuring that different beliefs and cultures are integrated effectively for boosting ethical practice among psychologists. The bottom line is the fact that many ethical dilemmas that face psychologists today emanate from differing cultural views on what is right or wrong in the society. The goal of the ethical decision-making should be negotiating and establishing solutions that are consistent with the primary ethical standards.

Personal and Elaborated Opinion

The chapter is effective as it addresses ethical dilemmas in the practice of psychology. It brings out an excellent explanation of ethical dilemmas that emanate from diverse cultural beliefs among psychologists working in different countries and communities.

The understanding of such ethical dilemmas is vital as it offers an alternative to psychologists and the entire community hence ensuring that everyone benefits from the psychological services. The clear assertion of ethical dilemmas is also important as it helps reveal some of the gaps that exist in a diverse world hence limiting the practice of psychology. This leaves professionals with the task of seeking an appropriate mechanism to close such gaps and build a more united world with respect and care for each other.

In my opinion, the chapter is satisfactory in the way it brings out a solution to the existing ethical dilemmas emerging from diverse cultural beliefs and practices. Globalization is the key solution underlined in the chapter. Authors are clear on the point of globalization as they reiterate that globalization could be either enlightened or unilateral one. The emphasis on enlightenment globalization indicates the true spirit of looking for a lasting solution to ethical dilemmas. Therefore, the chapter is effective in the manner it offers a sufficient and fair solution to the ethical dilemmas facing psychologists operating in different cultures.

Enlightened globalization ensures that cultures are integrated, and psychologists are able to deal with different cases rationally.

The use of these solutions will ensure that all clients work with the best psychologists that are guided by ethical considerations as they work in different parts of the globe.

More so, the chapter’s emphasis on the flexibility of ethical standards is effective because it helps professionals working in different cultures understand the best way to handle ethical dilemmas. One of the most notable ideas presented in the chapter is that professionals must be ready to adjust their beliefs about ethical standards hence upholding respect and care for their clients. This is crucial as it ensures that cultures are appreciated, and clients receive the best from their respective psychological professionals. This also leads to a better understanding that the world is becoming more accommodative to everyone without regard to his or her cultural beliefs and practices. The emphasis on flexibility relating to ethical practice will improve the field automatically and ensure that harmonious cooperation is realized between the psychologists and diverse communities, in which they work.

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Chapter 4


Professional codes are always aimed at setting standards for the competence of psychologists. This is important for the improvement of professional practice among psychologists in line with the required ethical standards. Professional codes are a motivation to psychologists as they guide them in their daily operations while managing their relationships with clients from diverse cultures. This chapter presents an effective explanation of how professional codes can help boost the overall objective of competent practice among psychologists. It also explains the importance of codes in improving the quality of work done by psychologists as they operate in diverse cultures. Psychologists must understand the ways of dealing with each situation they can face in the course of their practice. Adherence to ethics is the only way to ensure that the practice of psychology succeeds in addressing the problems and meeting the requirements of various stakeholders such as sponsors, clients, and other professionals.

Keywords: professional code, stakeholder, ethical standard


The chapter starts with the explanation of the importance of professional codes in the field of psychology. It highlights the view that professional codes set standards that govern the competence of psychologists and the quality of the services they deliver.

The chapter indicates the view that standards of competence can never be absolute at any instance. The standards of competence need to be revised and improved every time as they are not as perfect as many people imagine. They are only in place to ensure competence, but are a subject to improvement in case of any new precedent. The chapter also highlights some of the distinctions existing between the categories of rules in professional ethics. In explaining differences between the categories of these rules, the authors distinguished constituent rules and tactical rules. Constituent rules define the game while tactical rules are mainly used by players in the game. In line with the practice of psychology, tactical rules are an indication of ways and tools that psychologists can use to improve the quality in their daily actions. The chapter also addresses the question of what makes up the foundation for the competence of psychologists in some of the internationally recognized codes. There are four basic ways of upholding ethically competent actions among psychologists around the globe. Three of these ways relate to professionals and their members while the fourth way relates to various stakeholders such as clients and sponsors. The ways that relate to professionals and their members include the existing scientific knowledge and access to it through education, professional experience, and the fund for professional knowledge and expertise in the field of psychology. Psychologists must be ready to understand and apply them effectively as they measure their level of competency in their activities. The fourth way relates to stakeholders such as sponsors, clients, and the overall public. Therefore, this way explains interactions between professionals and stakeholders. Leach, Stevens, and Lindsay (2012) reiterated that psychologists must always uphold professional codes when dealing with the different classes of stakeholders as this improved their experience. Competence and care among psychologists would be realized only through the continuous use of professional codes in daily practice.

Personal and Elaborated Opinion

In my opinion, this chapter clearly considers the professional codes and their aim in the practice of psychology. There is a clear description of the idea that professional codes set the basis for competent practice among psychologists. Professional codes developed on a common agreement are crucial in any practice as they lead to the achievement of the required objectives in the most competent manner possible. The clear emphasis on professional codes is vital because it leads to the universal understanding of the important professional codes and the manner in which they are supposed to be applied to various clients.

This will guide the entire field of psychology and ensure that the required modes of operation are realized in the most ethical manner possible. The clear description placed on the importance of professional codes makes it easier for people all over the globe to appreciate the field of psychology because of its competency.

The emphasis on different classes of stakeholders in the field of ethics is impressive. Leach, Stevens, and Lindsay (2012) affirmed that psychologists had to understand the various groups of stakeholders including clients, the government, their sponsors, and other professionals. This understanding will help boost relationships between psychologists and stakeholders in line with their professional codes. This is because they will understand the application of ethical standards and their professional codes in different matters as they deal with specific stakeholders. For example, this assertion will help psychologists understand that clients need to be treated with much care, respect, and appreciation. This will also offer an effective medium for psychologists to benchmark their competence as they work with different clients.

However, the chapter does not explain the due process of passing professional codes to psychologists and other professionals in different parts of the globe. The assertion of a clear mode of passing professional codes to psychologists would have played an assistive role in understanding the entire concept of professional codes. Additionally, the chapter could have stated some of the examples of professional codes that need to be utilized in achieving competency in the field. This would offer a guide to psychologists and ensure they embrace ethical standards of operation as they move and work in different parts of the globe.

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